Publications

Working Paper
Harris, Allison, and Maya Sen. “How Judges' Professional Experience Impacts Case Outcomes: An Examination of Public Defenders and Criminal Sentencing”. Working Paper. Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
How do judges' previous professional experiences affect case outcomes? In this short article, we investigate the question by documenting the effect of judges' previous criminal justice experience on sentencing. Leveraging thousands of federal sentences from 2010 to 2019, we find that defendants with charges assigned to a former public defender are, on average, less likely to be incarcerated. In some cases, their sentences are also shorter, which we show is partially attributable to former defenders being less likely to give out extremely long sentences. The findings make two key contributions. First, they contribute to growing evidence of disparities in the criminal legal system, particularly those associated with judge characteristics. Second, the findings showcase the potential impact of judges' previous professional experience (as opposed to demographic characteristics) on decision-making. Both illustrate a new strategy in how political actors can influence policy through judicial selection on the basis of professional experience.
Mlambo-Ngcuka, Phumzile, and Rangita Silva de de Alwis. “Redefining Leadership in the Age of the SDGs: Accelerating and Scaling Up Delivery Through Innovation and Inclusion”. Working Paper: n. pag. Print.Abstract

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka and Rangita de Silva de Alwis jointly conducted a study titled, “Redefining Leadership in the Age of Sustainable Development Goals: Accelerating and Scaling Up Delivery." This research was conducted as a joint study with Harvard Law School's Center on the Legal Profession, advised by Professors Iris Bohnet and David Wilkins of Harvard, Professor Deborah Rhode of Stanford University, and Dean Theodore Ruger of the University of Pennsylvania Law School.

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Executive Director of UN Women. She is a Nonresident Senior Fellow of the Center on the Legal Profession, Harvard Law School; Nonresident Leadership Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government’s Women and Public Policy Program (2019-2020). She is the former Vice President of South Africa.

Rangita de Silva de Alwis is Associate Dean of International Affairs at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. She is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Center on the Legal Profession, Harvard Law School and Nonresident Leadership Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government’s Women and Public Policy Program (2019-2020).

 

bending-the-curve-of-life-8-25-2020.pdf
2022
Bowles, Hannah Riley, Bobbi Thomason, and Inmaculada Macias-Alonso. “When Gender Matters in Organizational Negotiations”. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior 91 (2022): , 9, 1, 199-223. Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A person's gender is not a reliable predictor of their negotiation behavior or outcomes, because the degree and character of gender dynamics in negotiation vary across situations. Systematic effects of gender on negotiation are best predicted by situational characteristics that cue gendered behavior or increase reliance on gendered standards for agreement. In this review, we illuminate two levers that heighten or constrain the potential for gender effects in organizational negotiations: (a) the salience and relevance of gender within the negotiating context and (b) the degree of ambiguity (i.e., lack of objective standards or information) with regard to what is negotiable, how to negotiate, or who the parties are as negotiators. In our summary, we review practical implications of this research for organizational leaders and individuals who are motivated to reduce gender-based inequities in negotiation outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest future directions for research on gender in organizational negotiations.
Schwarz, Susanne, and Alexander Coppock. “What Have We Learned about Gender from Candidate Choice Experiments? A Meta-Analysis of Sixty-Seven Factorial Survey Experiments”. The Journal of Politics 84.2 (2022). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Candidate choice survey experiments in the form of conjoint or vignette experiments have become a standard part of the political science toolkit for understanding the effects of candidate characteristics on vote choice. We collect 67 such studies from all over the world and reanalyze them using a standardized approach. We find that the average effect of being a woman (relative to a man) is a gain of approximately 2 percentage points. We find some evidence of heterogeneity across contexts, candidates, and respondents. The difference is somewhat larger for white (vs. black) candidates and among survey respondents who are women (vs. men) or, in the US context, identify as Democrats or Independents (vs. Republicans). Our results add to the growing body of experimental and observational evidence that voter preferences are not a major factor explaining the persistently low rates of women in elected office.

Authors: Susanne Schwarz, MPPP ’15, and Alexander Coppock

Cohen, Dara Kay, and Sabrina M. Karim. “Does More Equality for Women Mean Less War? Rethinking Sex and Gender Inequality and Political Violence”. International Organization 76.2 (2022): , 76, 2, 414-444. Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Recent world events, such as the rise of hypermasculine authoritarian leaders, have shown the importance of both sex and gender for understanding international politics. However, quantitative researchers of conflict have long relegated the study of sex and gender inequality as a cause of war to a specialized group of scholars, despite overwhelming evidence that the connections are profound and consequential. In this review essay, we demonstrate the tremendous progress made in this field by analyzing a wave of research that examines the relationships between sex and gender inequality and war. We divide this work into theories that emphasize strategy versus those that analyze structures. In addition, we focus on two aspects of this research agenda—specifying mechanisms that link sex and gender inequality to war, and leveraging data at multiple levels of analysis—to outline fruitful pathways forward for the broader international security research agenda. Ultimately, we argue that the study of the nexus of sex and gender inequality and war will enliven theoretical debates, illuminate new hypotheses, and enrich the policy discourse with robust evidence.
2021
Kosseka, Ellen Ernst, Matthew Perrigino, and Alyson Gounden Rock. “From ideal workers to ideal work for all: A 50-year review integrating careers and work-family research with a future research agenda”. Journal of Vocational Behavior 126 (2021). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Historically, the careers literature, (grounded in vocational psychology) and the work-family literature, rooted in industrial-organizational psychology and organizational behavior (IO/OB), were not well-integrated, developed at separate speeds, and differed in gender focus. Early career studies targeted men's careers, while work-family studies centered on women's careers. Both literatures assumed conformity to an Ideal Worker norm. Looking over fifty years, the goal of our paper is to conduct a review in order to identify commonalities and gaps, and suggest integrative lenses for future research. The 71 studies we identified that addressed both work-family and careers issues clustered into three main approaches: careers studies emphasizing vocational psychology lenses, work-family studies from IO/OB research, and dual-realm focused research that was usually from other disciplines. Surprisingly, two-thirds of the articles were conceptual, suggesting that integration is currently more aspirational than it is reality. Most empirical articles took a trade-off lensassuming an incompatibility between high dual role investments in career and family, which helps perpetuate ideal worker models. This gendered siloing of work-family and careers issues and the need for studies to address critical integrative problems was observed over fifty years ago in Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s seminal (1977) monograph, an agenda that our review suggests is still largely unrealized today. To guide the next decades' future research, we build on Kanter's prescient agenda, and propose expansion to four integrative lenses: Whole Life Demands-Resources; Linked-Lives of Family Life Course and Career Stages; Diversity, Intities; and Ideal Work in Changing Social, Technological, and Economic Contexts. Our agenda will help advance understanding of the pressing problems that affect the integration of employees' careers and work-family concerns, and the conditions that support the design and implementation of ideal work for all.

Cohen, Dara Kay, Connor Huff, and Robert Schub. “At War and at Home: The Consequences of US Women Combat Casualties”. Journal of Conflict Resolution 65.4 (2021). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
What are the consequences of women dying in combat? We study how women fighting on the frontlines of the military affects public attitudes toward (1) military conflict and (2) women’s equality. We demonstrate through a series of survey experiments that women dying in combat does not reduce public support for war. However, women’s combat deaths do shape perceptions of women’s equality. Women dying in combat increases support for gender equality, particularly in the public sphere of work and politics, but only among women respondents. The findings indicate that women’s combat deaths do not undermine leaders’ ability to garner support for war, but combat service—and indeed, combat sacrifice—alone is insufficient to yield women’s “first-class citizenship” among the general US public. The results highlight how major policy changes challenging traditional conceptions of gender and war can generate positive attitudinal shifts concentrated among members of the underrepresented community.
Norris, Pippa. “Cancel Culture: Myth or Reality?”. Political Studies (2021). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In recent years, a progressive “cancel culture” in society, right-wing politicians and commentators claim, has silenced alternative perspectives, ostracized contrarians, and eviscerated robust intellectual debate, with college campuses at the vanguard of this development. These arguments can be dismissed as rhetorical dog whistles devoid of substantive meaning, myths designed to fire up the MAGA faithful, outrage progressives, and distract from urgent real-world problems. Given heated contention, however, something more fundamental may be at work. To understand this phenomenon, the opening section defines the core concept and theorizes that perceptions of this phenomenon are likely to depend upon how far individual values fit the dominant group culture. Within academia, scholars most likely to perceive “silencing” are mismatched or non-congruent cases, where they are “fish-out-of-water.” The next section describes how empirical survey evidence is used to test this prediction within the discipline of political science. Data are derived from a global survey, the World of Political Science, 2019, involving almost 2500 scholars studying or working in over 100 countries. The next section describes the results. The conclusion summarizes the key findings and considers their broader implications. Overall, the evidence confirms the “fish-out-of-water” congruence thesis. As predicted, in post-industrial societies, characterized by predominately liberal social cultures, like the US, Sweden, and UK, right-wing scholars were most likely to perceive that they faced an increasingly chilly climate. By contrast, in developing societies characterized by more traditional moral cultures, like Nigeria, it was left-wing scholars who reported that a cancel culture had worsened. This contrast is consistent with Noelle-Neumann’s spiral of silence thesis, where mainstream values in any group gradually flourish to become the predominant culture, while, due to social pressures, dissenting minority voices become muted. The ratchet effect eventually muffles contrarians. The evidence suggests that the cancel culture is not simply a rhetorical myth; scholars may be less willing to speak up to defend their moral beliefs if they believe that their views are not widely shared by colleagues or the wider society to which they belong.
Nordås, Ragnhild, and Dara Kay Cohen. “Conflict-Related Sexual Violence”. Annual Review of Political Science 24 (2021): , 24, 193-211. Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This article reviews the remarkable growth in empirical literature in political science on wartime sexual violence against civilians, including rape, sexual slavery, forced marriage, and other forms. Early work, motivated by ongoing conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, tended to portray these forms of violence as inevitable, ubiquitous, and either opportunistic or strategic. However, recent literature and new data sources have documented substantial variation in sexual violence across countries, conflicts, perpetrators, and victims and survivors. Building on this observed variation, scholars have developed and tested a wealth of theories about when, where, why, and under what conditions sexual violence occurs as well as its consequences. We highlight the core findings from the literature, explain the key debates among experts, and explore several avenues for future research. We conclude by detailing what the study of wartime sexual violence—both the findings and the research process—offers to a broader set of political science scholars.
Chilazi, Siri. “Culture & Inclusion Literature Review”. 2021. Print.Abstract

This literature review is an overview of the academic literature relating to diversity and inclusion in organizations. It does not claim to be comprehensive as the existing body of academic work in this somewhat undefined space is vast. Rather, this document aims to focus on individual and organizational levers to promote gender equality. As such, it largely emphasizes recent scholarship from the last 10 years. Earlier, seminal works are included selectively where their influence continues to be felt and where they remain relevant to current conceptions of diversity and inclusion.

wappp_inclusion_literature_review_091117.pdf
2020
Sana, Amal El. “Managing the tensions between service and advocacy: The case of the AJEEC Social Change Service Organization, Naqab, Israel”. International Journal of Social Welfare (2020): , 1-14. Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The tension between providing services to marginalized groups and organizing them for advocacy to challenge power structures is a fundamental dilemma for Social Change Service Organizations (SCSO). This dilemma exists in many civil society organizations, especially those that work with indigenous communities, such as the Bedouin in Israel, where providing immediate services and advocating for policy change are crucial. Literature shows the tensions that arise from combining service provision and advocacy. However, there are very few studies showing how these organizations manage and overcome these tensions sustainably. The present study is an exploratory case study using the AJEEC (Arab‐Jewish Center for Empowerment, Equality, and Cooperation) in the Naqab as an instrumental single case. It provides an in‐depth understanding of the tensions AJEEC is facing and reveals AJEEC’s unique approach and strategies for managing these tensions effectively and sustainably within the social, political, and cultural contexts. It presents implications for research, policy, and practice.
2019
Kennedy, Alexis R., Sebawit G. Bishu, and Nuri Heckler. “Feminism, Masculinity, and Active Representation: A Gender Analysis of Representative Bureaucracy”. SAGE Journals (2019). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Representative bureaucracy examines how identity impacts bureaucratic decision-making. Under certain circumstances, identity congruence between government officials and citizens will result in positive outcomes. This article explores how representative bureaucracy literature studies the effects of gender identity and matching. Although studies demonstrate that context and organizational environment impact identity, scholars don’t systematically analyze how outcomes are affected by gender, rely predominantly on binary gender variables, seldom acknowledge organizations as masculine spaces, and don’t problematize masculinity. Using critical gender theory, we offer new proposals for how to expand our understanding of institutionalized gender norms as they relate to public sector decisions.
0095399719888470.pdf
Risse, Leonora. “Economics and Gender Equality: A Lens from Within”. Capitalism and Society 14.1 (2019): , 14, 1, 1-38. Print. risse_2019_economics_and_gender_equality_-_a_lens_from_within_capitalism_and_society.pdf
Hideg, Ivona, and Anne E. Wilson. “History backfires: Reminders of past injustices against women undermine support for workplace policies promoting women”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (2019). Web. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Public discourse on current inequalities often invokes past injustice endured by minorities. This rhetoric also sometimes underlies contemporary equality policies. Drawing on social identity theory and the employment equity literature, we suggest that reminding people about past injustice against a disadvantaged group (e.g., women) can invoke social identity threat among advantaged group members (e.g., men) and undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies by fostering the belief that inequality no longer exists. We find support for our hypotheses in four studies examining Canadian (three studies) and American (one study) EE policies. Overall, we found that reminders of past injustice toward women undermined men’s support for an EE policy promoting women by heightening their denial of current gender discrimination. Supporting a social identity account, men’s responses were mediated by collective self-esteem, and were attenuated when threat was mitigated. Reminders of past injustice did not influence women’s support for the EE policy.
hideg_wilson_2019_obhdp.pdf
Trombini, Chiara, Logan A. Berg, and Hannah Riley Bowles. “Anger and Anxiety in Masculine Stereotypic and Male Dominated (MSMD) Negotiating Contexts”. 2019. Print.Abstract

In this chapter, we explore ways in which affective experience and expression might moderate effects of gender on negotiation, particularly in masculine-stereotypic and male- dominated (MSMD) contexts. We argue that, in MSMD contexts (as compared to more gender- equitable situations), men are likely to have a more chronic experience of power than women and that such gender differences in actual, perceived, and felt power are likely to reinforce gender stereotypes favoring men in negotiation. We articulate a set of propositions about the potential effects of anger and anxiety—two power-linked affective states—on gender in negotiations in MSMD contexts. We consider implications for negotiators’ social and economic outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest practical considerations for managers in MSMD work environments.

trombini_berg_bowles_2019.pdf
Bowles, Hannah Riley, Bobbi Thomason, and Julia B. Bear. “Reconceptualizing What and How Women Negotiate for Career Advancement”. Academy of Management (2019). Print.Abstract

We propose a conceptual framework for expanding the scope of future research on the role of gender in career negotiations. Extant research on gender in career negotiations emphasizes women’s disadvantages relative to men in compensation negotiations. We present an inductive study of what and how women negotiate for career advancement and the attainment of leadership positions in organizations, drawing on data from diverse samples of negotiation accounts by senior-executive, mid-level, and early-career professionals from the public, private, and non- profits sectors and six world regions. Integrating insights from six studies, we propose a more comprehensive perspective on what men and women negotiate for career advancement, including their role development and work-family conflicts, as well as compensation. We also identify three distinct negotiating strategies—asking, bending, and shaping—that vary in the extent to which the negotiator conforms to, deviates from, or attempts to redefine organization norms. Our analyses suggest that the choice of negotiating strategy has implications for men’s and women’s career progression, particularly for women’s navigation of nontraditional career paths and men’s and women’s leadership claiming. We suggest new directions for research on the role of negotiation in career advancement and in promoting and mitigating gender inequality in organizations.We propose a conceptual framework for expanding the scope of future research on the role of gender in career negotiations. Extant research on gender in career negotiations emphasizes women’s disadvantages relative to men in compensation negotiations. We present an inductive study of what and how women negotiate for career advancement and the attainment of leadership positions in organizations, drawing on data from diverse samples of negotiation accounts by senior-executive, mid-level, and early-career professionals from the public, private, and non- profits sectors and six world regions. Integrating insights from six studies, we propose a more comprehensive perspective on what men and women negotiate for career advancement, including their role development and work-family conflicts, as well as compensation. We also identify three distinct negotiating strategies—asking, bending, and shaping—that vary in the extent to which the negotiator conforms to, deviates from, or attempts to redefine organization norms. Our analyses suggest that the choice of negotiating strategy has implications for men’s and women’s career progression, particularly for women’s navigation of nontraditional career paths and men’s and women’s leadership claiming. We suggest new directions for research on the role of negotiation in career advancement and in promoting and mitigating gender inequality in organizations.

bowles_thomason_bear_amj_2019.pdf
Bohnet, Iris, et al. Be like an orchestra: how to eliminate gender bias in venture capital funding. 2019. Web. Publisher's Version essays-on-equality.pdf
Tanquerel, Sabrina, and Marc Grau-Grau. “Unmasking work-family balance barriers and strategies among working fathers in the workplace”. Organization (2019). Web. Publisher's Version
Carlana, Michela. “Implicit Stereotypes: Evidence from Teachers’ Gender Bias”. Oxford Academic - The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2019). Web. Publisher's Version
Lai, C., and B. Mahzarin. “The Psychology of Implicit Intergroup Bias and the Prospect of Change”. PsyArXiv (2019). Web. Publisher's Version lai_banaji_-_the_psychology_of_implicit_intergroup_bias_and_the_prospect_of_change.pdf

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